Wednesday, January 15, 2020

A Comparative Girl Jamaica Kincaid Analysis of Two Short Stories

The short stories The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Gilman and Girl by Jamaica Kincaid share the common theme of women who are portrayed as frail beings.   In both literary selections, women are depicted as dependent on men and other family members, and who must deal with so many restrictions.Their limitations are deliberately foisted on them by their immediate kin or spouse. On the other hand, the women portrayed in the short stories also hurdle challenges they themselves have created or brought upon themselves.In The Yellow Wallpaper, for example, the author presents the protagonist as weak or on the brink of a nervous breakdown. In the beginning of the story, when the protagonist is brought to a country home, she appears in control of her mental faculties.She even opines, â€Å"Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good† (Gilman, 2008, p. 2).   Her husband, however, confines her to the upper story of the house and prohibits, albeit in his loving and gentle manner, anything that may tax her mentally. The woman’s craving for social interaction and stimulus becomes more pronounced as the days pass, yet she allows her husband to direct all her actions.The woman’s   dismal future is reflected in the way she sees the wallpaper in the house where she is confined to recuperate: â€Å"It is a dull yet lurid orange in some places, a sickly sulphur tint in other† (Gilman, 2008, p. 5).The woman then begins to imagine things and becomes neurotic. This emphasizes how, when placed under repressive circumstances, the fairer gender may fall apart. In an ironic twist at the end of the story, though, the husband’s fainting spell and the woman’s movement of creeping over him denotes that women can have the upper hand over her male counterpart if she wills it.The other literary selection, Girl, Jamaica Kincaid, likewise illustrates how women are expected to follow so many rules and confo rm to what tradition and society dictate. Just like in The Yellow Wallpaper where the main character indicates a feeling of tiredness at being manipulated and repressed,   the protagonist in Girl who is a young girl receiving countless reminders answers back her mother for berating her every move, but ends up being castigated more.In The Yellow Wallpaper, the husband-wife relation is amiable. In fact, the husband has the best intention for his wife, but the worst harm results from it unknowingly sends her spiraling out of control by confining her. In contrast, Girl uses the mother-daughter tandem to illustrate the common practice adopted by most cultures of ingraining good manners, blind obedience, and prescribed roles to female members of the family.In Kincaid’s Girl, the daughter is admonished by her mother to move and behave in ladylike manner. Her movements – from the way she walks and carries herself, to the household chores she is expected to perform, to how to smile to certain people, to reacting to a man’s bullying and even   loving a man – are all dictated to her.Offhand, it is a typical scene of a mother giving numerous pieces of advice to her daughter, but the story presents the parent treating the young girl with a condescending attitude.   The mother keeps interjecting that the girl is bound to become the slut she is â€Å"so bent on becoming† (Kincaid, 2005, p. 257) if the proper rules of conduct and self-control are not followed.In a sense, the mother portrayed in the story is depicted as the judgmental type who does not allow her daughter free creative expression. Kincaid dwells on the singular theme of just how powerless women were centuries ago.Women back then had no voice of their own and were confined to doing traditional tasks like keeping the home neat and orderly and being prim and proper or acting in a refined manner.   In both Girl and The Yellow Wallpaper, the suppressive societal attitude to wards women of a bygone era – who are seen as meek and subservient individuals unable to chart their own destinies – is clearly presented.Upon closer analysis of two different selections, readers find authors employing a variety of creative techniques that help them dissect different perspectives and gain much clearer understanding of the theme and other   key messages.ReferencesGilman, C. (2008). The yellow wallpaper. Forgotten Books. Retrieved May 3, 2010, from http://www.amazon.com/Yellow-Wallpaper-Forgotten-Books/dp/1606802380.Kincaid, J. (2005). Girl.   In   X.J. Kennedy & D. Gioia (Eds.), Backpack literature: an introduction to fiction, poetry & drama (p. 257). Pennsylvania: Pearson/Longman.   

Monday, December 30, 2019

Customer Experience Is A Saas Priority - 1024 Words

Customer experience is a SaaS priority. Experts report that â€Å"customer experience will overtake price and product as the key brand differentiator† by 2020. So, it’s time to take a serious look at how you engage with your customers. Are they completely satisfied? Or are you simply meeting the team’s quarterly benchmarks? â€Å"At the end of the day, customer experience is about human interaction and creating a bond between the user and the brand. It’s about making a commitment to understanding how your product positively impacts the lives of your users, and actively seeking out opportunities to maximize those benefits,† writes Rob Carpenter, founder of Hitshop. Don’t fail the customer experience. Here are four ways you’re falling short: 1.†¦show more content†¦Your team may even want to write an eBook showing your customer how to obtain a specific result. Here’s an example from Moz. They engage their customers with webinars. The content offers new insight from expert speakers. Plus, it’s available live and on-demand. Source The customer experience relies on your SaaS’s ability to educate, not sell. And one of best ways to educate your customers is through engaging content. â€Å"Making the customer experience the core of your content marketing strategy should be a no-brainer in the current climate. As customers become more discerning, you need to step your game up to inspire and impress them, and to retain their interest,† says Don Dodds, Managing Partner at M16 Marketing. Think of content as an educational tool. The key is to become a trusted resource for your customers. 2. No Real Support Your SaaS will never be perfect. Mistakes will occur throughout the customer’s journey. Therefore, it’s vital that you set up a plan to address customers’ issues. We’re human. And customers are forgiving. If a problem occurs, it’s understandable. However, how your team handles the mishap will define your SaaS. Will you ignore the problem and conduct business as usual? Or will you solve the customer’s concerns with diligence? A survey found that â€Å"one-third [of customers] say they’d ‘rather clean a toilet’ than speak with customer service.† Yikes! Customer service is the bread and butter of any

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Brain’s Rewarding System Addiction - 1536 Words

The Brain’s Rewarding System Addiction Biopsychology Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the article, â€Å"The Brain’s Rewarding System Addiction† (2004) by Katharine P. Bailey, MSN. In this article, I did not find a general hypothesis. Studies in this article show that most drugs directly or indirectly cause selective elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NA), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the limbic system, consequently called the reward center of the brain (Bailey, 2004). Behaviors that bring pleasure and are also crucial to existence (eating, drinking, and sex) also activate the same reward circuitry, however, activation of this circuitry by addictive drugs can be much†¦show more content†¦Bailey (2004) used the Substance abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], and the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to gain access to records and reports on how many Americans were binge drinkers and drug users. It was concluded that an estimated 14 million Americans (in 2004) met the diagnostic criteria for alcohol/drug abuse (Bailey, 2004). She used this information to compile the data used on the first page of her report to explain that alcoholism and addiction are devastating problems that many people/families deal with daily. Discussion Addiction is defined as a chronic brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. In my opinion, compulsive drug use is a hallmark of addiction, yet a mechanistic understanding of this process has been elusive. Drug use is initiated primarily to obtain the excitatory actions of addictive drugs on brain reward systems. The reward pathway evolved to promote activities that are essential to the survival of the human race as well as other mammals (Bailey 2004). When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in those who are genetically or otherwise â€Å"neurochemically† vulnerableShow MoreRelatedPsychoactive Drugs Can Have On An Individual s Brain1612 Words   |  7 PagesTo fully understand the affects that psychoactive drugs can have on an individual’s brain, one has to first define the term, dissect the history and use, know what factors cause addiction, and what leads to drug depend ency. What is a psychoactive drug? A psychoactive drug, psycho-pharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness (drug, n.d). Typically the term drug alone can be seen or associated withRead MoreAddiction Is The Most Common Addiction991 Words   |  4 PagesAddiction is more of a condition than a disease, and can be considered to be a behavioral disorder that stems from personal choice. Addiction is a controversial issue, and many people debate on whether addiction is seen as a disease or a personal choice. There has been many studies that have proven addiction to be a disease that stems from personal choice. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes habitual drug use ( Drug abuse, 2012). Over time the brain changes, and the person who is addictedRead MoreAddiction : The Problem Of Addiction Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesAddiction Students stroll in to class, their Venti iced soy vanilla lattes in hand rather than a notebook and pen. Keurig coffeemakers are commonplace in college dorm rooms. Colleges boast the number of Starbucks shops they have on campus. Just a month into the school year, and already many students’ bodies are becoming tolerant to caffeine, needing more and more of it to achieve the desired boost of energy, and if not given their fix, rebelling by causing headaches and irritability. Could itRead MoreThe Problems of Drug Addiction954 Words   |  4 PagesDrug addiction A reasonable number of people do not understand why other people get addicted to drugs. Some even associate drug abuse and addiction with lack of moral principles or willpower. People subscribing to this school of thought believe that drug addicts can stop using drugs by simply changing their behavior. They fail to realize that drug addiction is a complex disease whose eradication calls for many things other than changing habits. Drugs basically change the way a human brain worksRead MoreDrug Abuse and Addiction Essay1324 Words   |  6 PagesOne person can take abuse drugs, yet never become addicted, while another person has one experience and is immediately hooked to that drug. Drug addiction is defined as a dependence on an illegal drug, or medication. When you are addicted, you cannot control your drug use despite the fact that you know the consequences. The scary thing is that drug addiction can cause a major intense craving of drugs. Even though you want to stop, most people can’t do it on their own it is very difficult, and most needRead MoreAddiction as a Disease: Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to1400 Words   |  6 PagesAddiction as a Disease: Addiction is a term that has traditionally been used to refer to psychiatric syndrome that is caused by illicit drug use. Actually, addition is the only psychiatric condition whose symptoms are regarded as an illegal activity. In most cases, this term is described on the basis of drug use, which is the main focus of many research and treatment programs. Generally, drug addiction has significant negative effects on individuals using the drug and those around them such asRead MoreDrug Addiction And Its Effects On The United States1194 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout history, drug addiction has been one of the many factors of why people across the United States become unsuccessful. Being an addict controls the mind, body and souls of some people and with that, it usually hurts them in the long run. A disease is a disease, no matter if it’s alcoholism, gambling, food addiction or a drug addiction. Not all drugs do the same to people, but in some cases, it gets them high for a couple minutes and makes them keep coming back for more and from time to timeRead MoreHeroin : The Dangerous Opiate Essay1205 Words   |  5 Pages2016). These receptors stimulate the release of dopamine along the reward pathway of the brain, thus creating the mind-numbing euphoria and relaxed state, until the user acknowledges the impact and detriment that heroin use can have on the nervous system and overall life expectancy. On the surface, opiates are a class of drugs that remove pain and generate a rush of pleasurable feelings, something any stressed out college student or professor might seek, so how exactly does this illegal painkillerRead MoreFactors Influencing the Prevelence of Addiction Essay1275 Words   |  6 Pages Addiction Everyday we see and hear news articles and reviews that say: â€Å"I cannot put down Twilight†¦ it’s addicting!† or â€Å"I’m a Breaking Bad addict!† The way the term addiction is used in the media these days, many would overlook its actual significance and the trouble it causes for millions across the globe. Recently, many individuals have referred to addiction as anything that is a compulsive need or habit-forming, which could involve everything from substances, like nicotine or alcohol, toRead MoreThe Drug Of Drugs And Drugs Essay1635 Words   |  7 Pagespains, many of times used for medical operations. It made who ever used it be completely numb.Heroin was first made by Alder Wright in 1874 from morphine. Heroine is made from a black sticky substance known as tar. Methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug and most of the meth abused in this country comes from other countries or domestic superlabs, although it can also be made in small areas like a garage, or illegal laboratories, where its production dangers the people within the labs

Friday, December 13, 2019

Ujian Matematik Tambahan Free Essays

Sekolah Menengah Sains Muzaffar Syah Melaka 75450 Air Keroh Melaka Ujian 2 2007 Additional Mathematics Form 4 Time : 75 Minuets INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES 1 This question booklet consists of three parts, Section A and Section B. and Section C Answer All Question in Section A and B and two Question of section C 2 Give only one answer/ solution to each question. 3 Show your working . We will write a custom essay sample on Ujian Matematik Tambahan or any similar topic only for you Order Now It may help you to get marks. 4 The figures/diagrams given in a problem in this question booklet would provide useful information to solve the problem. However, it might not be drawn to scale. 5 Write the answer in the answer sheets provided. All solution methods must be clearly shown. You may loose marks if important working steps are not properly shown. 7 The marks for each question or part-question are shown in brackets. 8 You may use a non- programmable scientific calculator. The following formulae may be helpful in answering the questions. The symbols given are the ones commonly used . 1 x = ?x N 6 Arc length, s = r ? 7. Area of sector , A= 1 2 r ? 2 2 x = ? = ? fx ? f ? (x ? x ) N 2 8. = y=uv, 3 ?x N 2 dy dv du =u +v dx dx dx ?x 2 9 2 4 ?= ? f ( x ? x) ? f = ? fx ? f 2 ?x 2 du dv v ? u u y = , dx = dx 2 dx , v dy v dy dy du = ? dx du dx 10 5 ?1 ? ?2N? F? M = L+? C ? fm ? ? ? ? ? Section A 1 Answer all questions The mean of x+ 3, 2x – 5, x + 7, x and 3x + 7, is 12 . Find (a) the value of x (b) median [ 4 marks ] Answer : (a) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (b) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. A set of examination marks a1 , a2, a 3, a 4, a5, a6, has a mean of 5 and standard deviation of 1. 5 Find (i) the sum of the marks, ? a , (ii) the sum of the squares of the marks, ?a 2 [ 3 marks ] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3. The mean of a set of four positive integers is 6. When a number y is taken out from the set, the mean becomes 5. Find the value of y. [ 3 marks ] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4. The mean of the set of numbers 2. 5, 3. 6, 4. 3, 5. 8, x is 4. . Find the standard deviation of the set of data. Give your answer correct to three decimal places [3 marks] Answer†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. ________________________________________________________________________ 5 Mar ks Number of student 1 -20 2 21 – 40 1 41- 60 5 61 – 80 14 81 – 100 8 Table above shows the marks obtained by a group of students I a monthly test. Find the standard deviation of the marks. Give your answer correct to two decimal places. [ 4 marks ] Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ __________________________________________________________________________ _ 6 (a) Convert 231 o 11 ‘ to radian (b) Convert 1. 455 to degree and minutes [ 2 marks ] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7 Diagram 1 shows a sector AOB with centre O . A 5c m O 0. 5 rad 5c m B DIAGRAM 1 Find the area of the shaded segment [ 4 marks] Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 r A O 63 o B Diagram 2 shows a circle with centre O. Given that the length of the major arc AB is 62. 21 cm, find the length of the radius, r , in cm. [3 marks ] DIAGRAM 2 Answer :†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Diagram 3 shows two arcs, AD and BC, for two circle with centre O and radius OA and OB respectively. 12 cm ? 10 cm 10 cm DIAGRAM 3 Given that the length of arc BC is 12 cm , OD is 10 cm and OD : DC = 5 : 2 Find , a) ? , in radian b) the are of the shaded region ABCD. 4 marks] Answer †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ __________________________________________________________________________ _ Section B Answer two question only [ 20 marks ] 1 Table 1 shows the marks of 80 students in an examination. Marks No of Students 50 – 59 8 60 – 69 25 TABLE 1 (a) Calculate the mean marks of the student. [ 3 marks ] 70 – 79 22 80 – 89 18 90 – 99 7 (b) Draw a histogram and estimate its mode [ 4 marks ] (c) Without drawing an ogive, calculate the median marks of the students [ 3 marks ] 2 Diagram 4 shows sector AOB and sector OED with centre O and E respectively . OCE is a right angle triangle. A cm C B O D ? RAJAH 6 E Given that ? AOB is 500 , OA = 10 cm , OE = 8 cm and OB : BC = 2 : 1. Calculate (a) (b) (c) ? and radian, [2 marks] perimeter of the shaded region in cm, [4 marks] area of the shaded region in cm2. [4 marks] 3 a) Find the value of 4 3 i) limit x ? 3x + 2 x x4 x 2 ? 64 ii) limit n 8 x ? 8 [3 marks] b) Find dy of y = 3Ãâ€"2 by using first principle dx [2 marks] c) Differentiate the following with respect to x 1 i) y = x + ? 5 ii) y = 2Ãâ€"3 ( 3x -5)4 x 128 d) Given that f(x) = 2x – 3 find f ? (2) x [ 3 marks ] [ 2 marks ] END OF QUESTION PAPER Prepared By †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Pn Saripah Ahmad Approved by, How to cite Ujian Matematik Tambahan, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Into The Depths Of A Black Hole Everyday We Look Out Upon The Night Sk Essay Example For Students

Into The Depths Of A Black Hole Everyday We Look Out Upon The Night Sk Essay Into the Depths of A Black HoleEveryday we look out upon the night sky, wondering and dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space. That mystery happens to be that of the ever clandestine, black hole. This essay will hopefully give you the knowledge and understanding of the concepts, properties, and processes involved with the space phenomenon of the black hole. It will describe how a black hole isgenerally formed, how it functions, and the effects it has on the universe.In order to understand what exactly a black hole is, we must first take a look at the basis for the cause of a black hole. All black holes are formed from the gravitational collapse of a star, usually having agreat, massive, core. A star is created when huge, gigantic, gas clouds bind together due to attractive forces and form a hot core, combined from all the energy of the two gas clouds. This energy produced is so greatwhen it first collides, that a nuclear reaction occurs and the gases within the star start to burn continuously. The Hydrogen gas is usually the first type of gas consumed in a star and then other gas elements such as Carbon, Oxygen, and Helium are consumed. This chain reaction fuels the star for millions or billions of years depending upon the amount of gases there are.The star manages to avoid collapsing at this point because of the equilibrium achieved by itself. The gravitational pull from the core ofthe star is equal to the gravitational pull of the gases forming a type of orbit, however when this equality is broken the star can go into severaldifferent stages. Usually if the star is small in mass, most of the gases will beconsumed while some of it escapes. This occurs because there is not atremendous gravitational pull upon those gases and therefore the starweakens and becomes smaller. It is then referred to as a White Dwarf. If the star was to have a larger mass however, then it may possiblySupernova, meaning that the nuclear fusion within the star simply goes out of control causing the star to explode. After exploding a fraction of the star is usually left (if it has not turned into pure gas) and that fraction of the star is known as a neutron star. A black hole is one of the last option that a star may take. If the core of the star is so massive (approximately 6-8 solar masses; one solar mass being equal to the suns mass) then it is most likely that when the stars gases are almost consumed those gases will collapse inward, forced into the core by the gravitational force laid upon them. After a black hole is created, the gravitational force continues to pull in space debris and other type of matters to help add to the mass of the core, making the hole stronger and more powerful. Most black holes tend to be in a consistent spinning motion. This motion absorbs various matter and spins it within the ring (known asthe Event Horizon) that is formed around the black hole. The matter keeps within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the centre where it isconcentrated within the core adding to the mass. Such spinning black holes are known as Kerr Black Holes. Most black holes orbit around stars due to the fact that they oncewere a star, and this may cause some problems for the neighbouring stars. .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .postImageUrl , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:hover , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:visited , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:active { border:0!important; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:active , .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58 .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u206e26954edcbb4642fe344f25bf0f58:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Othello Tragism Essay If a black hole gets powerful enough it may actually pull a star into it and disrupt the orbit of many other stars. The black hole could then grow even stronger (from the stars mass) as to possibly absorb another. When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is first pulled into the Ergosphere, which sweeps all the matter into the Event Horizon, named forits flat horizontal appearance and because this happens to be the placewhere mostly all the action within the black hole occurs. When the star is passed on into the Event Horizon the light that the star endures is bentwithin the current and therefore cannot be seen in space. At this exactpoint in time, high amounts of radiation are given off, that with theproper equipment can be detected and seen as an image of a black hole.Through this technique astronomers now believe that they have found a black hole known as Cygnus X1. This supposed black hole has a huge star orbiting around it, therefore we assume there must be a black hole that it is inorbit with.The first scientists to really take an in depth look at black holes and the collapsing of stars, were a professor, Robert Oppenheimer and hisstudent Hartland Snyder, in the early nineteen hundreds. They concluded on the basis of Einsteins theory of relativity that if the speed of light was the utmost speed over any massive object, then nothing could escape a black hole once in its clutches. **(1) The name black hole was named such, because of the fact that lightcould not escape from the gravitational pull from the core, thus making the black hole impossible for humans to see without using technologicaladvancements for measuring such things like radiation. The second part of the word was named hole due to the fact that the actual hole, is whereeverything is absorbed and where the centre core presides. This core isthe main part of the black hole where the mass is concentrated and appears purely black on all readings even through the use of radiationdetection devices. Just recently a major discovery was found with the help of a device known as The Hubble Telescope. This telescope has just recently found what many astronomers believe to be a black hole, after being focused on an star orbiting empty space. Several picture were sent back to Earth from the telescope showing many computer enhanced pictures ofvarious radiation fluctuations and other diverse types of readings that could be read from the area in which the black hole is suspected to be in. Several diagrams were made showing how astronomers believe that if somehow you were to survive through the centre of the black hole that there would be enough gravitational force to possible warp you to anotherend in the universe or possibly to another universe. The creative ideas that can be hypothesized from this discovery are endless. Although our universe is filled with much unexplained, glorious,phenomenons, it is our duty to continue exploring them and to continue learning, but in the process we must not take any of it for granted. As you have read, black holes are a major topic within our universe and they contain so much curiosity that they could possibly holdunlimited uses. Black holes are a sensation that astronomers are still very puzzled with. It seems that as we get closer to solving their existence and functions, we just end up with more and more questions. Although these questions just lead us into more and more unanswered problems we seek and find refuge into them, dreaming that maybe one day, one far off distant day, we will understand all the conceptions and we will be able to use the universe to our advantage and go where only our dreams could take us. Dave May 343 1992/12/04 References For Into The Depths of a Black Hole**(1): Parker, Barry. Colliding Galaxies. .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .postImageUrl , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:hover , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:visited , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:active { border:0!important; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:active , .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue14d88663799bb31fe5fdac5b50afc5c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: AMERICAN PATRIOTISM Essay PG#96

Thursday, November 28, 2019

History of Transportation Essay Example

History of Transportation Essay History of Transportation system Transportation system was, is and will be one of the most of import issues of peoples life. It accounts centuries. Definition of transit can be different, as the ground, it can intend the trip between two topographic points, two small towns, for trade, war or possibly merely for journey. It can be done utilizing air, H2O or land. Transports transformed during centuries and today look much different than in 19th or at the beginning of 20th century and much different than it was in early phases. Transportation is an built-in portion of history, history itself, in point of fact, has frequently been determined by motion across the land-movement of ground forcess, of whole peoples in migration and of trade. In the early phases advancement rate in land transit was really slow. Man from the beginning was characterized by motion from one topographic point to another, seeking some nutrient, assailing his neighbours, to happen married woman in other groups and so on. The chief ends of adult male in early phases were: hunting and abduction. But all of these was frequently behind the human migration, the stronger suppressing the weaker. Man for on his ain pess could go more than three stat mis per hr. Despite the flexibleness of his physical construction, he was compared to other animate beings, which were stronger, more nimble, and swifter, but the human animate being had certain advantages, large encephalon, flexible manus construction, he had to walk unsloped, liberating his custodies for the usage of tools. Later adult male started to measure replacements. First he had dragged all the things he needed, but subsequently the adult male understood that person else besides could make it by his way and ordinance. The animate beings: Canis familiariss, elephants, donkeys camels became the first, who appeared in the history of transit. We will write a custom essay sample on History of Transportation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on History of Transportation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on History of Transportation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The earliest vehicle seems to hold been the sleigh. Very perchance the sleigh had its beginning in a simple subdivision drawn behind a adult male or animal. For thousand old ages ago the Egyptians used much the same sort of vehicle, but with heavierA and stronger smugglers, to transport immense blocks of rock, some deliberation every bit pulp as 800 or 900 tones. So as we see the sleigh was really utile, but subsequently nevertheless the wheel made its advancement. The oldest illustrations of wheel are found in Mesopotamia and day of the month from the 4th millenary B.C. , among the Sumerians, Akkadians, Elamites and Chaldeans. Sumerians were the first people who reach the civilisation, so they seem to hold been the first who used the full wheel. At the get downing it was three boards of wood, which were pegged together in a unsmooth circle. Soon they strengthened it, utilizing a metal set or tyre and eventually hollowed out for elation and equipped with radiuss. For a long clip the chariots was reserved for the aristocracy, for trade or by the common people as waggons, but it was later. Sumerian chariot changed really small over a thousand old ages, until the debut of the Equus caballus from cardinal Asia. In the 17th centuryA B.C. horse-drawn chariot made its visual aspect. It became the chief arm of the Assyrians, who finally subdues most of the civilised universe. [ 1 ] The biggest transmutations in conveyance sector started from the building of roads. Romans constructed a immense route system that made possible to utilize different types of vehicles and besides develop new 1s. They had 20 different types of vehicles, from the two-wheeled carpentum, which was really fast and light and had aA leather hoot for protection of drivers, to the four-wheel carruca, which could transport whole household. The first existent roads, that were constructed were really short. Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar had its celebrated Procession street, which was made with big rocks overA a foundation of asphalt, which led through the metropolis to a significant span across the Euphrates. For easing the transit of heavy blocks of rock the Egyptians reinforced roads, which were short, but really wide. Timess changed and from twelvemonth to twelvemonth people started to contrive more energetically and interesting things for transit. Historically Equus caballus, drawing a vehicle was really utile for people, but subsequently they started to make different sorts of setup, which provided for them more energy to acquire from one topographic point to another, from clip to clip. And so we come to the funny mechanical vehicles of the sixteenth and 17th centuries and which were operated by land levers. First everything started with innovation of different and little passenger cars, which was possible to drive without Equus caballuss. In 1645 Jean Theson make a smallA four-wheeled passenger car, which was driven without Equus caballuss for two sitting adult male. Another innovation was made by German, HautschA around 1600, which besides was used without Equus caballuss. The ancient Chinese had attached some canvass for their cart, which helped them along, the voter Johann FriedrichA built a vehicle of this type in Europe in 1543. In 1600 Simon StevinA a military applied scientist, built a celebrated chariot, it had two masts, a plough-shaped rudder and all sorts of clever devices for paring or take downing the canvass with despatch. In 1826 an English adult male, George Pocock launched smaller passenger car, which he called winging Chariot , of class without Equus caballuss, it worked mean from 15 to 20 stat mis an hr. There was besides another wind-propelled vehicles, named Flying Coach , which was invented by Non Jose Boscasa and Hacquet s Eolienne The latter, favored by a sou-west air current, really sailed through the streets of Paris one twenty-four hours in 1834. The first steam passenger car which really worked and could non travel faster than 4 stat mis per hourA was Nicolas Cugnot s fardier , a big cart. Intended to transport guns or other heavy tonss, it was made of stout beams and had three immense, iron-strapped wheels, with power delivered direct to the individual wheel in forepart by two monolithic cylinders. A large boiler and firebox were suspended over the front wheel, doing it even more cumbrous. This awful monster, which was tested before the Minister Choiseul in 1769, had to halt every 15 proceedingss to acquire up more steam and vibrated so much that it eventually escaped from its discoverer and torus into a wall of the armory. However, it was the first vehicle in which the push of Pistons successfully turnedA a drive wheel ; in order words it was truly the first car. [ 2 ] The fardier can still be seen at the Conservatoire diethylstilbestrols Arts et Metiers in Paris. On position at the Birmingham Museum is the 2nd precursor of the car, a little steam theoretical account built by William Murdock, Watt s helper in 1784. With its visible radiation wheels and small smokestack at the dorsum it looks frail compared to the heavy fardier . The 3rd innovator vehicle was Oliver Evans s steam passenger car, which he drove through the streets of Philadelphia toward the terminal of 1804. It was a immense amphibian boat which had been built to dredge the Schuylkill River. Evans named it the Orukter Amphibolos or the digger which works all ways because it was equipped with wheels for land travel and paddle wheel for the H2O. And it really worked, pounding several stat mis over uneven land before come ining the river, where theA paddle wheel took over from the belts which drove the wheels. In 1891 Richard Trevithick, helped by Andre Vivian, built a steam passenger car with the engine in the rear which could transport about a twelve riders at nine stat mis an hr. Two old ages subsequently, beforeA turning to the steam railroad, Trevithick really ran aA steam trike through the streets of London. In the following 30 old ages or so rather a figure of ego -propelled steam passenger cars were built and operated on the new, difficult surfaced roads of England and with considerable success. Outstanding was the steam carriageA of Goldsworthy Gurney, which weighed two tones. By 1832 his manager was running on agenda four times daily between Gloucester and Cheltenham. In 396A trips it carried 3 000 riders without bad luck. Around 1834 Walter Hancock was runing several lines, including his Paddington-City of London tally. But all these managers disappeared and the same happened in France even through Onesiphore Pecqueur in 1828 had invented true modern maneuvering with two wheels , and the derived function for a rear-wheel thrust. Subsequently train became really popular among other conveyances, its success was resistless, of class because it could travel faster with great safety and economic system and besides could transport more riders. The railway involvements combines with proprietors of Equus caballus drawn phases, with people who sold Equus caballuss, with turnpike companies, and husbandmans who grew oats for fresh fish -pushed through a series of Torahs haltering and taxing the route locomotives, prohibiting them to go faster than four stat mis an hr and eventually necessitating a adult male with a ruddy flag to predate each automotive vehicle on a public main road. The latter act was non repealed until 1896. therefore with the failure of the steam managers Britain was deprived of any opportunity for an early lead in the car field. Bollees, were father and boies, who brought steam back on the route. Their first machine was the Obeissante a 15- HP monster weighing five tones and going at 24 stat mis p er hr. It was good received when it wasA shown in Paris in 1873. Five old ages subsequently the Mancelle , a much smaller machine, made its importance, it was much more economical. By this clip Bollee machines became known throughout the Europe. There was the Marie-Anne , Nouvelle of 1880, which could make 27 stat mis per hr, per Avant-Courrier of the same twelvemonth and the Rapide of 1881. Count Albert de Dion, with the mechanic Georges Bouton, worked out a small three-wheeler in 1883A which could be drive by one adult male. He followed it with others, faster and more economical. But the chief incommodiousnesss remained: the driver had to stock H2O and coal, light the fire, delay for his auto to acquire up steam and eventually he had to abandon all ideas of going faster so 24 stat mis per hr prescribed by jurisprudence. There is a great demand . Baudry de Saunier wrote, to bring forth about immediately and with small force per unit area the measure of steam needed and to make it with a purely non-explosive boiler.AÂ » Leon Serpollet, last of the great steam-car discoverers, did primly this, doing the Paris to Enghien-less-Bains run in 1888 on a sort trike which answered Baudry de Saunier s equipments. In 1890, with Ernst Archdeacon, he made the Paris-Lyon tally in 10 yearss. At Nice in 1902 Serpollet achieved a velocity of 75 stat mis per hr. An eclectic car by Nicolas RaffardA appeared in Paris in 1883. About the same clip an English adult male, Magnus Volk, brought out a similar auto, while a passenger car builder named Jentaud produced one with a seven horse-power engine that could do 15 stat mis an hr. Later on, a racing auto by Jenataud achieved a universe record- 56 stat mis per hr. This was eventually capped by Camille Jenatzy s electric Jamais Contente , which did 65 stat mis per hr. At the terminal of nineteenthA A century, when the gasolene car was still immature, it seemed for a clip as if the electric auto might be the car of the hereafter. Many were built -silent, powerful, and comfy and were a common sight up into the 1920s, particularly in the metropoliss. But electric grip had a serious defect: the batteries frequently weighed a ton, and the driver had to halt often to reload them. [ 3 ] It is hard to state, who was the discoverer of the first engine. Philippe Lebon in 1800 planned to detonate a potpourri of air and illuming gas in a cylinder to travel a piston.. Other discoverers used gases and hydrocarbons as fuel and experimented largely in design. Combustion engine foremost became commercially successful in center of 19th century with little gas engines, , whose discoverer was Gallic, Joseph Etienne Lenoir. The following was to compact the mixture before detonating it, an thought which was worked out in footings of the conventional engine by Beau de Rochas, in 1862. The thought was taken up in 1867 by Nikolaus Otto, he produced engine two times, as economical one and every bit fast as Lenoir s. His four-cycle Otto Silent of 1876 led straight to the modern car engine. Daimler, hitting upon gasolene as a fuel, produced a lightweight engine which he tested on a bike in 1885, therefore inadvertently contriving the bike. His first car was a four-wheeler. Benz s was a simple three-wheeler, but it had some characteristics, that anticipated the modern automobile. , a fundamental water-cooling radiator, differential cogwheel and electrical alternatively of fire ignition. Its engine was a four-cycle. Like the Daimler, its velocity was around 10 stat mis per hr. . Daimler sold his patent to Rene Panhard and the applied scientist Emile Levassor, who wanted to present the car to France. The first trial was in 1890 and 1891. The aim was to travel from Porte dIvryA to the Viaduct of Auteuil and back without engine problem, an aim that was shortly achieved. After this the house of Ponhard-Levassor received its first order and shortly was sharing it with Armand Peugeot who besides used the patent of Daimler. In 1894 by Pierre Giffard of the Petit Journal organized the first great race betweenA Paris and Rouen-77 stat mis, the competition was between all types of cars: whether steam, electric, or gasolene. The victor was Count Albert de Dion, who averaged 13 stat mis per hr in the small steam auto. In 1895 a 2nd race was organized, much longer and more hard, fro Paris to Bordeaux and return, a distance of 744 stat mis. Steam was represented by one of count de Dion s autos, two Serpollets, and Bollee s Mancelle , gasolene by a Panhard Levassor and three Peugeots and electricity by Jeantaud. From the 21 vehicles, which participated, Panhard Levassor was who won, finishing the class in less than half of 100 hours anticipated by the organisers. The high quality of gasolene over steam and electricity was proved beyond a uncertainty. The race proved besides that an car, like a bike could and should sit upon air. Michelin Brothers had been proved a success -even through they had to be changed by the drivers every 93 stat mis. The following unit of ammunition was infernal and homicidal, right up to the Indianapolis race of today, the 24 hors of the Le Mans, of Monte Carlo, of other topographic points. There was the Tour de France, from Paris to Berlin, the Paris-Vienna, the Gordon Bennett Cup and the bloody Paris- Madrid race of 1903, in which was killed Marcel Renault. During the Competition the roads between metropoliss were turned into huffy circuses filled with billowing crowds. Out of the noise was born Germany s Taunus meet, Italy s Monza, Englands Brooklands and in the United StatesA , the Atlantic City. From twelvemonth to twelvemonth the cars improved. Then there were mass meetings and competitions, which sent the cars in different sides of the universe. The United States, saw its first successful gasolene car in 1893-that of Charles and Frank Duryea. It was a little, four-horsepower touring car with small engine. American Automobile industry comes form 1896, when the Duryea Motor Wagon Company produced 14 autos. The First Packard introduced in 1899. But the existent part of United States was in mass production and the start participant, her was Henry Ford, who is celebrated for all of us. Henry Ford foremost started with root, but subsequently he left the thought. He put together his first successful gasolene roadster in 1896, so series of autos 999 , the Arrow and others and could non decideA , which one of them was better. The reply on this inquiry, later was received in Europe, foremost by Citroen and so by others. The immediate consequence was the Model T Ford. In 1909 Henry Ford had written that that the car of the hereafter must be superior to the present auto to engender assurance in the adult male of limited agencies, and sufficiently lower in monetary value to see gross revenues for an tremendously increased end product. He said: the auto of the hereafter must be a auto for people the market for a lower-priced auto is limitless. A [ 4 ] And latter, every one proverb, that he was truly write, because the figure of sold autos aggressively increased. Between 1908 and 1928 there were sold more than 15 million Model T Fords. During 1925, merely in one twen ty-four hours entirely, more than 9000 were built. [ 5 ] Later the rivals and replacements followed the illustration of Henry Ford, because it was truly good thought, who else could conceive of and make it. The First design of passenger car in Italy, which could run without Equus caballuss, was done by celebrated creative person Leonardo district attorney Vinci, if we look back.A But Father Barsanti and Professor Mattenci were, who together took outA a patent for a gas engine in 1854. In 1894 Colonel Bordino produced a little automobile.A But the existent beginning was in 1895, the twelvemonth the celebrated Agnelli created the no less famed Fiat in Turin. A Fiat in 1907 won a brilliant ternary triumph: the Traga Florio, the Sarthe circuit and the Emperor s Cup.A The route had been prepared for the elegant car, for cars, which are named as Lancia, Ferrari, Maserati and Alfa-Romeo. Now the car has everything it needed, things such as four-cylinder engine, wheels of the same size all around, electric lighting, an electrical self-starter, and for all of that we have to be grateful for American discoverer Charles Kettering, who invented this car in 1911. [ 6 ] Looking at all these historical points we saw that the transit was of import non merely in 19th century and today, but it comes from much earlier period, people used transit for different grounds.During many old ages transit transformed and the period from the 19th century to the nowadays was the period of astonishing alterations and advancements in car industry.A Transportation started by pess with adult male from early stagesA and today continues with luxury cars. In past we saw that the car was really luxury and really expensive pleasance for people, but today it is really necessary thing, which has about all households and utilize them for different necessity, but as it was as in yesteryear, today car industry besides feels and faces many different jobs. What will be tomorrow cipher knows, how transit and car industry can transform, possibly we can woolgather about something more, about something incredible in this sector. Meaning ofCommon Transport Policy Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Rome in 1958, the conveyance industry, faithful retainer that it is, has undergone important alteration in order to follow to the growing and demands of international trade. [ 7 ] The Treaty of Rome provides the legal footing for the creative activity of a common conveyance policy. Following to agriculture and commercial policy the Common Transport Policy is one of the three common policies specially mentioned n Article 3 of the Treaty as one of the activities the Community must prosecute in order to set up a common market and increasingly toA and increasingly come close the economic policies of the Member StatesAÂ » . Irrespective of the Treaty commissariats, conveyance policy left under the control of the Member States. The Member States pursue different conveyance policies and proceed from different bases for State intercession. [ 8 ] Common policy means redeveloping the policies of Member States to organize a individual Community policy: a procedure of integrating culminating is supranational conveyance policy. [ 9 ] The chief purpose of the policy is to eschew the difference between Member States. Conveyance industry has few differences from other industrial sectors. When we are speaking about economic Fieldss: Conveyance is used as an instrument of State economic policy. Transport is a major industry by such standards, that two is measured: employment, investing and etc. [ 10 ] In conveyance sectors are employed high per centum of workers. Transport sector of EU-15 employed 6.2 million people, and that increased to 7.4 million after expansion of 2004. [ 11 ] Conveyance industry is of import activity to other industrial sectors and its degrees of rates are important to the State s economic system. In a market advancing specialised production, the consumer and the manufacturer, both depend on conveyance, to run into their each others demands. The independent bearer, occupies a cardinal place in the market as a whole: this his policies, unless regulated, can impede international trade by know aparting as to charges between manufacturers or besides between consumers. Some ordinances are of import for manners which are covered but Transport, such as route rail, inland, waterway, sea and air, because most of them are viing with each other and sometimes struggles are irreversible. Transport is an industry with public service duties, where authoritiess frequently intervene by compeling some services and besides by commanding the duties. Railwaies are used an instrument of economic policy, where public funding of the substructure is really common. In instance of roads, the edifice of roads frequently depends on the State, but one time the roads are built and unfastened to traffic many different types of users take advantage of their being. Conveyance industry is characterized by projects of dissimilar construction, which provides interchangeable services. Inelasticity in the supply of conveyance owing of the perishableness of its services makes full freedom of competition impracticable. Transport sector is capable to many international understandings, whose some of the Member provinces are parties and have to carry through international duties. In country of inland waterways, the Commission has uncomplete competency because of relationships with 3rd states. The Rhine government, which is established by the Mannheim Convention in 1868, with Central Commission implementing its commissariats, can non be ignored. The Central Commission, within the EC district governs the most of import individual component in inland conveyance. The country of air and maritime conveyance are governed by many international pacts. All this factors which are mentioned above madeA troubles for the Union to develop such as policies, which will spirit the integrating of conveyance services and fulfill the demands of the individual European market. [ 12 ] The most of import alterations in European Transport industry started from 1970s, when increased the use of route conveyance. This gross was truly dramatic and it effected the railroad conveyance. During the 1970s the rail s portion of the rider market has fallen from 10.2 % to 6.3 % . [ 13 ] European railroad increased investing on developing cardinal new techniques and substructures, such as high velocity trains: TGV, Eurostar and etc. , for competition with other conveyance s manners. Besides was mentioned the high addition in air conveyance for long-haul journeys and maritime conveyance has been relegated to the short-haul ferry market. [ 14 ] In the European Union conveyance sector is really of import issue, it provides 4 % of the GDP. Besides as we already mentioned above, it provides employment for EU citizens. In 1991, employees in the conveyance sector constituted between 4 % and 5 % of waged labour. It amounted to 5.6 million people, 2, 509000 of them were employed in route conveyance, 897000 in rail conveyance, 24 000 in inland waterway conveyance, 217000 in maritime and 349000 in air and 1569000 [ 15 ] in other sector which are related to transport industry.A Transport sector is the growing industry in European Union. The demand In industry is by and large proportionate to Gross Domestic Product. Taking the mean one-year economic growing in the European Union since 1970 as 2.6 % , the growing in goods conveyance services has been 2.3 % and rider conveyance services 3.1 % . Conveyance is the nexus which brings together people and merchandises from all European parts, above all the remoter parts. Conveyance in European Union was and is characterized by a great step of authorities innovation and a baffled web of bilateral and many-sided inter-state understandings in which the Member States used to and still take part. [ 16 ] When we speak about Common Transport Policy it is of import to separate three stages of this policy. First stage of the conveyance policy started after the entry into force of Treaty of Rime and continued till 1973-1974. During this stage, the European Community, was concentrated on creative activity of common market fro conveyance by route, inland waterways, railA and opening the national market between all Member States for competition. This thought was formulated in 1961 Memorandum by Commission and in 1962 Action Programme. [ 17 ] First stage of Common conveyance policy involved treatments between Member States and Commission, because the commissariats giver by the Treaty were non concreted to what it should incorporate. At the terminal of the 2nd stage, from 1973, the accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom to the European Community introduced more broad and less land-centred positions into inactive conveyance policy [ 18 ] At the terminal of 1973, A The development of Common Transport Policy was determined once more by the Commission and The Council. In 1974 in maritime and air conveyance sector two of import events took topographic point for development of Common Transport Policy: the Court gave judgement in the Gallic Seamen instance and under the protections of the United Nations, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Code of Conduct for Liner Conference was adopted. [ 19 ] Third stage started from 1983, when the assorted proposals for structured development of the Common Transport Policy, in several memorandums refering the inland ( 1983 ) , air ( 1984 ) and maritime ( 1985 ) sectors. [ 20 ] Talking about Transport policy it is of import to advert the chief factors, which influence, such as: geographics, engineering, wealth. The oldest influence likely lies in the physical characteristics of European geographical environment, which can promote or deter travel. It is comparatively easy to go up and down a river vale such as the Rhine and Danube, much harder to traverse major physical barriers such as the Alps or the Pyrenees other so by air. Most traffic traversing theA English Channel or the Baltic has to travel by the sea, though there is now a Channel Tunnel Between England and France, opened in 1994A and the Oresund span between Denmark and Sweden, opened in 2000. There are four rail tunnels through the Alps and seven route crossings, but some of these are unfastened in summer merely, and the two route tunnels between France and Italy, opened in 1965 and 1980, are single-bore with merely one line of traffic in each way. Heavy-goods traffic is to a great extent dependent on these two narrow tunnels, another under the Gotthard Pass in Switzerland and the one major four-lane main road which crosses the B renner Pass at 1, 372 metres. The lone important rail and route crossings of the Pyrenees follow the Atlantic and Mediterranean seashores. Since these mountain opportunity and sea traversing by and large coincide with national frontiers, which so they have frequently determined, they besides contribute to maintaining national conveyance policies separate. [ 21 ] Sometimes the national frontiers doesntA co-occur the physical barriers. Peoples ever thought about travel and trading goods in topographic points, where they can utilize their ain linguistic communication, were their rights are respected and they have easier entree to the instruction and medical system. It is really interesting in this instance to advert the state of affairs in German after the Second World War.When Germany was divided into two parts its system of roads and railroads, built to ease military and civilian communications on East and West axis, had to be reconfigured to beef up North-South communications on either side of the Iron Curtain. [ 22 ] After the reunion European Union is cut downing the importanceA of national frontiers, for illustration with the creative activity of individual currency of Europe-Euro, but for some people it is hard to traverse the boundary lines and travel to analyze or work, for few of the it is incredible to traverse national boundary lines, even where are no the physical barriers, who can avoid them. Even with the individual European market, the volume of international trade in 1994 was merely approximately 7 % of the tunnage mowed within national frontiers. [ 23 ] Second of import influencing on conveyance policy is engineering. As we already mentioned, when we discussed the history of transportationA , conveyance sector developed many times, during many old ages, A foremost the pess presented the chief conveyance for people, so transports developed by wheel, canvas emmet etc and over the past 250 old ages the steam engine, internal burning engine, the jet engine, and electric grip have each facilitated a step-change in engineering [ 24 ] the chief aim of such as technological revolutions are to do transit more comfy, easier, cheaper and safer. The 3rd factor which has the major influence on conveyance policy is wealth. There is really strong correlativity between economic public presentation as measured by gross domestic merchandise and the growing of goods and rider conveyance. It seemsA that the more we earn, the more we spend on travel and on the ingestion of goods which themselves have to be transported over long distances to make our places.And there is no mark every bit yet that these tendencies will non go on to bring forth a steadily increasing demand for transport.A In 2001 Transport White Paper, the committee estimated that GDP growing of 43 % between 1998 and 2010 will bring forth additions in the motion of riders and goods of 24 % and 38 % receptiveness. [ 25 ] Conveyance policy as we already mentioned above is really of import issue for European Union, because it is importantA policy for economic sector of the Union, for Environment, for Labor Market and besides for competition. And European Union ever tries to implement different schemes to better and reconstructure this policy for the weal-being of the citizens. Manners of Conveyance Transport sector covers different manners such as: route conveyance, railroad, waterway and air conveyance. Development of all these manners is different by times and by constructions. In this portion we will discourse recent developments in European different manners of conveyance sector. Personal mobility has more so doubled from 17km a twenty-four hours in 1970 to 38km in the late 1990s.Road conveyance is Europe s dominant conveyance manner and its laterality continues to turn. Private auto ownership in the EU -15 increased from 232 per 1000 in 1975 to 469per 1000 in 2000 and continues to turn. [ 26 ] Road conveyance at the terminal ofA A 1990s represented 44 % of the goods conveyance market compared with 44 % for short sea transportation, 8 % for rail and 4 % for inland waterways. In rider conveyance it represented 79 % of the market, 5 % of air and besides 6 % of railroads. Development of route conveyance is really of import and interesting instance, because during last old ages the volumeA of route cargo grew by 3.5 % a yearA and 7 % in the instance of cross-border cargo. The roads now take about 75 % of cargo traffic within the EU, compared with less than 50 % in 1970. As respects route conveyance, the cardinal manner is the private auto and growing in auto usage. During last 30 old ages the figure of autos tripled, at an addition of 3 million autos each twelvemonth. For 1975 there were 232 autos per 1000 people and now there are 444 autos per 1000 individuals. [ 27 ] For publicity of more safety conveyance, European Union introduced some statute laws on the driver makings, review of autos, velocity bounds and besides on passenger car of goods, which are unsafe and non safe. In 1997 the European Union launched extremely ambitious run for route safety. In add-on to one-year cheques, random wayside reviews and pollutant emanations analyses have been compulsory since 1998 [ 28 ] . Besides really of import issue is private autos inspectetion, which is obligatory at least every two old ages. European Union has introduced few rigorous emanation criterions and route revenue enhancement system, for publicity of more comfy andA safer route conveyance. Since 1 July 1998, route cabotage in the motion of cargo throughout the individual market has become to the full liberalized [ 29 ] . Another of import manner of conveyance is nautical conveyance, which by virtuousness of the Community s geographics and importance as the universe s biggest trading country, merchandiser transportation and maritime policy are cardinal elements of the Common Transport Policy.A [ 30 ] At the terminal of the twentieth century the highest sum of external trade was transported by sea.A For 1999, 41 % of trade was conducted by sea, 21 % by route, 25 % by rail, and merely 0.5 % by waterways. As we see for this period sea conveyance was dominant in comparing with other manners of transport.A Maritime runs controlled by EU subjects command 35 % of the universe fleet and some 40 % of the European Union trade is carried on vass owned or controlled by European Union s involvements. This sector, including ship building, ports and related industries and services employs around 2.5 million people in the European Union. [ 31 ] The rule of European Union maritime policy is same as other countries of conveyance: competition, safety and protection environment. The procedure of liberalisation and opening up national markets to competition within the European Union is about complete within the exclusion of the southern Member States, which have been allowed a gradual gap of their markets untilA 2004, maritime cabotage has been liberalize since 1999. there is therefore virtually entire freedom to supply services within the European Union. [ 32 ] Sail of autos for 1998 lessening in comparing with 1970 about three times. If for in 10970 is was 32 % , for 1998 it already was merely 11 % . European Union tried to work out this job, because this crisis state of affairs in nautical conveyance effected besides labour market, it cause high unemployment and occupation losingss for subjects of European Union.A The European Union has attempted to rectify this state of affairs by new scheme dwelling of: Positive steps to assist operators confronting international competition, such as assistance to continue EU employment ; Promotion of sea transportation as an environmentally friendly alternate to route conveyance ; Bettering sea makings of crews by developing and helping suited preparation plans ; Bettering safety ; Supporting research and technological development [ 33 ] ThirdA of import manner of conveyance is railway conveyance. This mode accounts many old ages and treatments about this type of conveyance started when during 1920s, when the route conveyance development began to impend the fiscal stableness of railroad companies. At this clip increased the engagement of authorities in conveyance sector, it was of import to explicate new policy, which could regulateA such asA competitions n this sector, largely between route and railroad conveyance. All over Europe, from 1930sA railroads became progressively dependent on authorities support and some were taken into public ownership. [ 34 ] Government tried to work out this job, such as competition between different manners in same sector and they emerged the scheme, to apportion railA for long distance conveyance of goods and riders and route conveyance for shorter journeys for passengers.A A For about 30 old ages rail conveyance still is characterized by worrying diminution and largely in cargo conveyance. In 1970 the railroads carried 32 % of all freightA in the EU-15. By 1996 the figure was merely 14 % to 73,7 % . Railway rider traffic besides declined from 10 % in 1970, to 6 % in 1999. [ 35 ] Rail conveyance is less competitory than route draw. Road, unlike rail, provides a door-to-door services. Since railroads are a safe and environmentally clean manner of conveyance, regenerating them is a top precedence of the European Union s Common Transport Policy. [ 36 ] On January 1998, began the constitution of international cargo expresswaies. The intent of this invention was to better the quality of rail cargo. There are four expresswaies in service at present: North-South, associating ports in northern Europe with those of the South ; Scan ways, associating Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden ; Belifret, associating Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Italy and Spain ; UK- Sopron, which is still under treatment, which would supply an east-west path from the United land to Hungary, with onward connexions to other cardinal and eastern European states. [ 37 ] By the Council in 2001 were adopted new directives, which are known as Rail Infrastructure Package and subsequently it was implemented by member States in 2003. The intent of these execution is to develop a Trans-European Rail Freight Transport, which would get down with 50000 kilometers of length. This means that any accredited railroad operator can run freight services across member provinces over the full rail web in Europe. [ 38 ] Like forA maritime, route and railroad manners of conveyance, for air hose the 1980-1990s was besides veryA of import period of development.During this period the staff of air hose rose from 325000 to 350000 and the figure of employment in this sector besides increased from 435000 to 490000 over the same period. Europe s airdrome substructure is coming nearer to the bounds of its capacity and more investing is being undertaken or planned in about all the Member states. [ 39 ] In liberalisation of air transport we can advert three phases: First bundle, which is adopted in 1987, a first relaxation of the regulations. In 1990, a 2nd bundle in pricing and the allotment of place capacity. The 3rd bundle in the liberalisation of air conveyance started in 1993. The steps that brought market liberalisation included: A Community licence to all European Union carries for unrestricted entree to all domestic markets ; A flat playing field for competition ; The allotment of slots to enable new carries to come in the liberalized market, despite the congestion jobs ; Land passing services to be bit by bit opened up to competition andA to accomplish full liberalisation by December 2003. Competition in computerized reserve systems which handle 70 % of all engagements, and are owned by the major air hoses: a ordinance prohibits these air hoses from giving themselves and sole advantages ; Airport charges to be regulated so that the hindrance consequence they might hold on new operators will be reduced ; Strict regulations on province assistance to air hoses to guarantee that it is given merely for intents of restructuring without falsifying market competition: under these regulations, the European Union has authorized province assistance to seven air hoses since 1987 ( Sabena, Iberia, AerA Lingus, TAP, Air France, Olympic Airways and Alitalia ) ; The acceptance of Commission on 27 September 2000 of a proposal for a European parliament and Council ordinance, which would set in topographic point a Community system of air safety and environmental ordinance and would put up an air power safety bureau ; A policy of integrating of environmental concerns into sectoral policies, called for by the Treaty of Amsterdam. [ 40 ] The terrorist onslaught, which held in New York in 2001 has threaten the air power industry. This fact thought air power industry into bi crisis. Many air hose companies reduced their flights and that of class had large input on employment in the air hose sector. And all these descended universe economic system into large recession. Till now all these manners of conveyance continues to develop, but with different success, because all of them have their single construction and importance for citizens, concern, trade, environment, safety, riders and by and large for whole European Union. Some of them are less developed and some more. And still the competition between all these manners is high. European Union as we already discussed above attempts to work out the job, by implementing different statute laws, directives and schemes. But any manner the route conveyance today still takes the dominant place in European Union, and few figures can exemplify this issue. Private auto ownership in the EU 15 increased after 1075 boulder clay 2000, in 1975 it was 232000 and in 2000- 469000. Furthermore the distance traveled by all route vehicles has tripled over the same period. The strong growing in route conveyance has been the instance in both the riders and cargo sector. Road portion of the rider market has risen from 73 % % in 1970 to 83 % in 2002 at the disbursal of both rail and coach and manager conveyance. Road cargo has increase its portion of inland conveyance from 52 % in 1970 to 75 % in2002. All other cargo sectors experienced a worsening portion of cargo conveyance in the EU-15 fell from 30 to 13 % over the period. [ 41 ] From all these figures we ve seen the existent public presentation of the citizens of European Union European Automobile Industry The Auto sector is frequently credited as the engine room of Europe.. The European Union is the fatherland to a competitory and advanced car industry that generates activity throughout the economy-from stuffs and parts supply, to Research and Development and fabrication, to gross revenues and after-sales services. [ 42 ] The car was non invented merely in one twenty-four hours and it accounts many old ages and centuries. The creative activity of car design firstA was drawn by Leonardo district attorney Vinci and Isaac Newton. Subsequently in 1769 was invented the first automotive route vehicle by Gallic discoverer Nicolas J. Cugnot, which used steam engine for powering its vehicle.A So as we see the history of Automobile industry started from Europe and European discoverers were foremost in this invention. Today European Union is the universes largest manufacturer of motor vehicles. [ 43 ] Automobile industry today is one of the biggest employer industries, it employs straight 2 million European Citizens and 10 million are employed in associated industries. Another of import issue is Research and Development for Automobile industry, because today it represents the largest investor in this sector and provides for them of import support and its investing is much higher so investings from other private sectors. The purpose of European Conveyance policy as we already have discussed is to cut down the distinguish between different manners of conveyance and we know that the route conveyance today is the dominant sector, with highestA per centum of use from the citizens of European Union and has highest portion on the conveyance market. The car industry is giving active input to the new alteration of Europe s Conveyance Policy, expected to be defined in the following Commission s term. Manufacturers welcome that the Commission has seasonably started the readying of the reappraisal, in front of the expiring of the ten-years range of the 2001 White Paper. One of the cardinal dogmas of the 2001 Conveyance policy was the construct of average displacement, the thought, that modes other than route conveyance should be encouraged for the interest of the environment. It besides promoted de-coupling route conveyance from economic growing. [ 44 ] The chief aims of the European Commission sing the automotive sector are: To beef up the fight of the automotive industry ; To finish, adapt and simplify the Internal Market regulative model ; AÂ · To promote globalization of the technical regulatory framework through UNECE To promote globalization of the technical regulatory framework through UNECE [45] ACEA, the Assosiaction of European Car Manufactures , established in 1991 and it represents the thirteen major European car, truck and bus manufacturers. All ACEA member companies are key players in the global automotive market and have integrated automobile operations (research, design, development, production and sales) in the European Union, where they produce around 18 million vehicles per year, provide direct employment to 2 million people and support the job of another 10 million fellow workers. ACEA Members are: BMW Group, DAF Trucks, DaimlerChrysler, FIAT, Ford of Europe, General Motors Europe, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Scania, Volkswagen, Volvo Trucks., Jaguar Land Rover,AÂ   Toyota Motor Europe. [46] The importance of Automobile industry for Europe The European automotiveAÂ   industry has long history in Europe and today car manufactors have production in almost all Member States .Europe is the worlds largest vehile producer , 1/3 of the 50 million cars produced globally are manufactured in the European Union [47]. According to fiffurs of 2007 ,the European Union was the highest producer of Motor vehicles, in comparison with other big producers of Motor vehicles in the world. ( Table 1) As the worlds largest producer of motor vehicles, the EUs automobile industry is a key driver of growth ,exports, innovations and jobs. The industry represents 6.5 percent of the EUs manufactoring sector and invests more than 20 billion euro per year in research and development , making in the EUs largest private investor in research and development. Automotive manufactoring is closely linked with other sectors key supliers include electronics, mechanical and electrical enginaring, information technology , steel, chemicals, plastics,metals and rubber. 1/5 of the EUs steel and more than a third of its aluminum production go into automobile production. [48] The automobile industry is one of the biggest employers in European Union. 2.2 million citizens are employed directly in the industry, whre they produce manufacturing, equipment and assecories, trailers ,caravane and etc. And 9.8 million persons are employed in sectors , which are related to the automobile industry, in other manufacturing activities, such as sale and distribution of motor vehicles, sale of motor fuels, renting of atomobiles, manufacture of electrical equipment for engines and vehicles, manufacture of electric motors, generators and transformers, computers and other information processing equipment and etc. ( table 2) For each Member State automobile industry has their importance.Major automobile markets in Europe: France, Germany,Italy and United Kingdom gain differently from this sector and have their separate and interesting history in auto industry. France French inventors played leading roles in achieving the technological breakthroughs that have made the European industry what it is today. Indeed, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot may well have been the first to build a self-propelled vehicle in 1769 a steam-driven contraption called a fardier a vapeur. Nearly a century later, Etienne Lenoir received a patent for the first successful internal combustion engine. The creation in 1894 of De Dion-Bouton et Cie laid the foundation of the French auto industry. The company produced its first petrol-engined four-wheeled car in 1899 and by 1900 was the worlds largest carmaker with annual production of 400 cars and 3,200 engines. Other French firsts include the issuing of automobile license plates in 1893. The automotive sector is a key driver of the French economy and the countrys leading employer: provides 298000 direct jobs, mainly at PSA and Renault. Equipment suppliers employ a further 128000 people and business, service and recycling companies employ 493000 staff. France is Europes second largest car producer after Germany and the worlds fifth largest behind the United States, Japan, Germany and China.The motor industrys economic impact is therefore quite substantial: in 2005 alone, automotive industry production, including automobiles and automotive equipment totaled more than a‚Â ¬90bn, a 64 per cent increase in value since 1996. Automotive products represent 15.4 per cent of French exports. The top two national manufacturers, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault, account for over half of the domestic market. Foreign manufacturers are not hugely present in France but Swatch produces in Hambach (Lorraine) and Toyota in Valenciennes (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). Across the country, alm ost 40 different vehicle models are produced in 21 assembly plants. It is the largest customer of major industrial sectors such as plastics, industrial rubber, casting and industrial metalworking services. The automotive supply industrys combined turnover is close to a‚Â ¬25bn. With 42 per cent of their production earmarked for export, suppliers are very much focused on the international market. [49] Germany Germany has a special relationship with the motor car.In 1901 it was already producing 900 vehicles a year German engineers such as Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach were pathfinders in the technical development of the internal combustion engine. Germanys famous premium brands of today are coveted around the world. The names of companies such as Porsche, Audi, Mercedes and BMW, as well as the mass market producer, Volkswagen, are synonymous with style and quality. International marques, including Opel (GM) and Ford, are also an important feature on the automotive landscape. Over the past decade, the industry has doubled its revenues and raised its share of manufacturing output from 12 per cent to 19 per cent. The industry consists of a small number of global lead manufacturers supported by a large number of family-owned small and medium-sized suppliers . It generates a turnover of a‚Â ¬226bn and an export surplus of a‚Â ¬80bn. Since reunification, auto manufacturing has become a crucial pillar of the East German economy with seven production centres and over 700 local suppliers. German manufacturers , which includes also Chrysler produced 11.3 million cars in 2006 in 23 countries. German factories turned out 5.8m cars, making it the worlds third largest manufacturer after the USA and Japan. Revenues, which have doubled over the last 10 years, amount to a‚Â ¬236bnAÂ   or 10.5 per cent of national GDP. For German automobile industry is very important employment sector, because every seventh job in Germany depends directly or indirectly on the automotive sector. Some 1.4 million people work in upstream and downstream businesses that are dependent on the automotive sector. One mark of the industrys health is that employment has actually increased by 21 per cent over the past 10 years. While Western Europe remains the focus of production by German vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, national companies also employ a total of 160,000 people across many of the countries that joined the EU in 2004. Their global dimension is marked by establishments in the USA, Mexico and Canada (at over 300 locations) and in China (now running at 140 plants). Germanys supplier industry is as dynamic as it is diverse. Among its biggest suppliers are ThyssenKrupp Technologies, with operations in 240 locations worldwide, 3M Deutschland, which produces over 1,000 different products for the automotive industry, and Michelin Reifenwerke, which has been present in Germany for over a century. There is a high concentration of component suppliers in supporting sectors such as electronics and electrical engineering, information technology, plastics and glass production, metal manufacture and processing, optics and precision mechanics. Given the priority German car designers attach to incorporating high-performance features in their cars, much emphasis is directed towards advanced electronics, innovative measuring tools, just-in-time logistics, turbo-charging systems, light-weight / high-strength engineering materials, catalytic converters, smart engineering and intensive robotic assembly, as well as dedicated software development. [50] Italy There are few countries in Europe , where the motor car is such a strong expression of national and individual identity as in Italy. The nations obsession with the racing fortunes of Ferrari in Formula One reflects its collective love of speed, excitement and beauty. The look of a car matters much to most Italians which is why the country has long been the source of the worlds leading car designers. But during the past century, Italy has also excelled in engineering skills able to develop highly successful low-cost small cars such as the Fiat 500 alongside premium models like Ferrari and Maserati. In the last 30 years these celebrated marques, together with Lancia and Alfa Romeo have been acquired by FIAT, the nations oldest mass producer of automobiles which now accounts for around 90% of Italian car production . The automotive sector in Italy contributes a significant 8.5% to Italian GDP nearly one quarter of the contribution from all manufacturing industries. The sectors total turnover is more than a‚Â ¬54bn with a directly-employed labour force of around 200,000 people. Italys leading international position owes much to the supplier networks specialising in the production of spare parts and accessories. The Turin area and the Piedmont region as a whole accommodate the nations most important industrial clusters. More than 470 component makers, 40% of Italys suppliers are located there ,with 33% of the workforce, with a peak of 75% for suppliers of modules and systems. As a whole, the regional supplier system employs over 43,000 people, about 70% of which is located in the province of Turin. [51] United Kingdom UKs automotive industrysAÂ   size and importance to the national economyAÂ   is an impressive example of survival and growth despite the demise over the last 40 years of large-scale national manufacturers. Automotive firms are leaders in many areas of manufacturing in the UK, while the country is home to the worlds most successful motor sport industry and a number of leading independent automotive design firms. The automotive sector in the UK remains diverse, competitive and world-class. Its crucial importance to the economy is reflected in a manufacturing turnover of over ?47 billion in euro 67.4 billion, total direct and indirect employment of 850,000 and a 10% share of national exports. Britains world-leading design-engineering companies are highly skilled and technologically sophisticated businesses whose products have a truly international penetration. It is estimated that British firms have a 20 per cent share of the independent global market in vehicle design-engineering. The UK has enjoyed good growth in output of automotive and non-automotive engines. Additional investment by Ford will push up production to over 3.5 million light vehicle engines and up to 400,000 truck and non-automotive engines by the end of the decade. The core manufacturing, distribution and servicing business in the UK directly generates a turnover value of ?200 billion in euro 287.16. In 2006, UK-based manufacturers produced 1.44 million cars, 53% of them carrying Nissan, Honda and Toyota badges. Output is sustained by a significant domestic market for new cars with annual registrations averaging 2.38 million over the last ten years. The equivalent average for vans, trucks, buses and coaches was 331,700. Underpinning these markets is a highly sophisticated, fiercely competitive retail and service/maintenance sector, employing more than 550,000 people and generating added value of some ?22 billion -in euro 31.5 annually. The West Midlands remains the main location for the UK industry, accounting for just under 30% of total UK car production. The region hosts a number of major automotive assemblers: Jaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin and MG Rover, with over 50,000 people employed in the sector. Sitting alongside manufacturers of key components from driveline to engines and electrics, are a large number of material processing and general engineering firms providing a significant base of expertise. Over 2,600 companies are active in the automotive components sector, ranging from the global players to small and medium-sized businesses. Together they contribute over ?4.8 billion in euro 6.9 billion added value and employ some 132,000 people. The sector exports over ?6 billion in euro 8.6 billion worth of goods annually, 75% destined for Europe and over ?1 billion in euro 1.4 billion worth travelling to the Americas. [52] Second half of 2008 was crusial for European Automobile industry , the banking system hit the economy, the acess to credit was limited for consumers and bussineses, what caused the redusction in car production and usage. During recession , demand for new cars across Europe had dipped a merely 2%, with comercial vehicle sales down just by 0.4%. By the end of the year , markets for all types of vehicles crashed . in the final quarter , car sales fell 19.3%: some member states reported decline of more than 50% in December alome. Demand for new comercial vehicles across Europe decreased by 24%.A [53]All these facts had direct impact on European Labor market, such as recession caused job losses across the Europe and European Union tries to solve all these problems and improve situation in automobile industry, by implementing different regulations , directives and strategies. Policy makers have a responsibility to protect the interests of citizens and safeguard the natural environment. But they also responsible for creating an environment in which businesses thrive. The independent nature of both : business and environment ,objectives is today perhaps more evident than ever. [54] EU as the worlds biggest motor vehicle producer EU is the worlds largest motor vehicle producer. It relies a strong automotive sector, that means that financial and economic pressure in this sector will effect whole European economy [55]. By motor vehicle production European Union in 2007 was on the first place, it reported the highest percentage of the production in all over the world 26.9%, ( table 3) when Japan showed only 15.9% and China 12.2 %. The lowest motor vehicle production in same period was in Russia ,with a 2.3%. One third of Passenger cars for 2007 was produced by European Union and it was 32% of world whole production, ( table 4) and it was two times more then Chinas and Japans production. Totally motor vehicle production in Europe was 19695044 for 2007, from this number 86.7% was passenger cars production, 9.7% vans production, 3.4%- Trucks and 0.2% Buses production. All member states have different relations with manufacturer production. Few of them are more advanced, like Germany and France and some less. Germany according statistic dates of 2008 is the worlds fourth largest manufacturer, after United States, Japan and China. Its automobile industry is very famous all over the world. Germans auto brands are very good known for all of us, such as: Mercedes-Benz , BMW, Audi. Porsche, Volkswagen and etc. For Germany manufacturing is very important. Germanys economy very much depends on automobile industry, because every seventh person is employed in this sector directly or indirectly. Another big and important player in automobile industry is France, which is second largest producer in Europe after Germany and fifth largest in the world, after United States, Japan, China and Germany. French inventors have leading role in automobile industry, already from history. Countries economy also very much depends on this sector, same as in Germany for France auto sector is important employer. It employs almost 300000 persons directly and more than 600 00 indirectly, in other related sectors. Few figures from table ( table 6)can illustrate the importance of GermanysAÂ   automotive industry for European Union. In Germany for 2007, car production was the highest in whole European Union , by 5,7 million, what was two times more, in comparison with Frances 2.6 million and Spains 2.2 million Germany has many advantages in different fields for automobile industry, such as: personal advantages, market advantage, technological, stable investment environment, physical infrastructure and etc. Personal advantages debunks in labor force of Germany. Germanys excellent highly-skilled labor force has been the key to success for the German automotive industry. Benefiting from the countrys unique education system geared to meet industry needs, the industry can count on a direct workforce of almost 750,000 highly-trained and experienced people. Another important advantage is the market. Germany hosts the largest concentration of Origin Equipment Manufacturer plants in Europe creating considerable production volume, client and product diversification advantages for suppliers. Established suppliers in Germany are able to access nine different OEMs and their respective decision centers, 25 assembly plants (an impressive one third of Europes total installed capacity) as well as production facilities of almost all top 100 tier 1 suppliers. Speaking about technological advantages we have to mention that from machine building to electronics, Germany is the technological leader in all automotive-related industries. Another important advantage of Germany as we already mentioned is physical infrastructure. Located at the heart of Europe, Germany offers a sophisticated infrastructure that integrates state-of-the-art transportation networks with the most modern and cost efficient information technology ( IT ) and telecommunications systems available today. Germans infrastructure is this world class infrastructure which supports the continued success of the highly efficient and smooth operating automotive logistics environment. [56] The highest result of passenger car production in Europe was in 2007 , which accounted 17082037 cars and it was higher then previous years production by 5.5%. World economic recession very hard effected the Automobile industry of Europe in 2008. Production and demand for European vehicles ,which had grown in 2007, began to dip in the first half of 2008. The reason of that was the general slowdown and of course of high oil process . In 2008 the highest Motor Vehicle production In Europe reported again Germany, with 32% of whole production, the second highest producers were SpainAÂ   and France 14% at this period and then came such as countries as Belgium, Poland, Czech republic, Italy and United kingdom with 5% of production. In 2008 were made 18. 4 million vehicles in Europe by 7% less than the 19.7 million produced in 2007. We already discussed production in Germany and France as the biggest producers in Europe , but we also have to mention other three countries , which enter five major Countries, they are: Italy, Spain and United Kingdom. From these five countries the worst d